What do Enzymes do

What do Enzymes do?

November 22, 2022 3:52 pm

What do Enzymes do?

Here is what Enzymes do in the human body:

1. Digestion

Enzymes are responsible for converting what you eat into nutrients that your body can absorb. For instance, breaking down glucose can fuel you with an amount of energy.

Also known as digestive enzymes, metabolic enzymes are actually present in the saliva and intestines. Some organs such as the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver release them too. This makes digestion happen easily.

When your body fails to produce normal levels of digestive enzymes, you are most likely to suffer from stomach aches, diarrhea, and gas pain.

The presence of specific digestive disorders such as lactose intolerance and exocrine pancreatic efficiency (EPI) can also prevent your body from producing sufficient levels of digestive enzymes.

2. DNA reproduction

Enzymes are necessary in DNA reproduction. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, and this helps direct the formation of new cells in the body. Specifically, humans constantly lose cells, for instance, those at the surface of the skin. However, this process is unnoticeable because of how quick the new cells can replenish their loss.

As a long strand coiled altogether, DNA’s reproduction is ignited by the workings of metabolic enzymes. Helicase is an enzyme responsible for the unwiring of the DNA as they split and form new cells. Without this essential occurrence, cells will typically die.

3. Liver function

Enzymes aid in multiple liver functions. The most popular one is the breaking down of harmful toxins in the body.

When substances enter the digestive system, the blood takes the nutrients as well as the toxins to the liver. Liver enzymes filter these toxins and release them through the bowel while the nutrients are bounced back to the bloodstream.

Liver function also involves breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. The metabolic enzymes act on these nutrients to ensure that the levels of energy and sugar in the blood remain regulated.

However, when the body projects high levels of liver enzymes, it could indicate that the liver is in an unhealthy state. A liver function test can determine the levels of enzymes in the liver and how they are affecting your overall health.

As the only organ capable of replacing damaged tissue with new cells, the liver can repair itself from any damage caused by a virus or an excessive use of drugs. However, too much scarring may also be irreparable and this can lead to liver cirrhosis.

What are Metabolic Enzymes?

Metabolic enzymes are naturally produced chemicals contained in every cell in the human body. While most of them are proteins, some are Ribonucleic (RNA) molecules which institute the creation of proteins through the body’s genetic information.

Also known as the catalyst of human bodywork, metabolic enzymes speed up vital chemical reactions in the body. This process is needed by different functions such as digestion and respiration as well as nerve and muscle functions. Metabolism, a process of converting food and drinks into energy, is highly regulated by metabolic enzymes.

Metabolic enzymes are essential in nurturing the body’s metabolic pathways. These pathways sustain cellular integrity and promote cellular survival, a condition which prevents the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, hormonal disorders, cancer, and a lot more.

This is the reason why metabolic enzymes have been the central target for drug formulations. The level of metabolic enzymes in the body must be regulated since too much or too little of it can actually cause multiple health problems.

 

How many metabolic enzymes are there?

There are more than one thousand enzymes contained in a cell. However, they have been classified by the International Union of Biochemists into six classes according to the type of reaction they catalyze.

It is important to understand that metabolic enzymes work by allowing a substrate to bind with an active site from the enzyme. This brings unique chemical reactions. These reactions can be classified by the six classes of enzymes as follows:

Oxidoreductases
Oxidoreductases catalyze the oxidation-reduction reactions in the body. Specifically, they aid in the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another.

Transferases
Transferases trigger the transfer of a group of molecules to another. Examples of these groups are amine, carboxyl, carbonyl, and more.

Hydrolases
Hydrolases are responsible for the breakdown of chemical bonds with the use of water. This process is also termed as hydrolysis. These enzymes are important due to their degradative properties.

Lyases
Lyases also break down chemical bonds but in ways that do not involve hydrolysis or oxidation. Specific examples include decarboxylases, aldolases, and dehydratases.

Ligases
Ligases, also known as Synthetases, involve two molecules which ably combine two substrates together to create a covalent bond.

Isomerases
Isomerases lead the formation of isomers, compounds which contain an equally precise number of molecules.

What are the examples of metabolic enzymes?

The following are the most popular examples of metabolic enzymes out of the thousand ones that exist with multiple functions in the human body.

  • Lipase aids in the breaking down of fats to turn them into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Protease breaks down protein to come up with amino acids.
  • Amylase is released by the saliva to produce sugar by changing starch.
  • Maltase is the enzyme that breaks down the sugar maltose into glucose.
  • Trypsin is released by the pancreas in order to break down the proteins in the small intestine.
  • Lactase is responsible for the breaking down of sugar in milk into glucose and galactose.
  • Acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine that can be found in nerves and muscles using water.
  • Helicase separates the two strands that make up the DNA and emerges it into single-strands which allow cell reproduction to become imminent.
  • DNA polymerase takes care of the replication of DNA by synthesizing it from deoxyribonucleotides.

How to increase metabolic enzyme activity

Metabolic enzyme activity can be increased by ensuring that the temperature and ph levels in the body remain in normal conditions.

When the body experiences fever, the enzymes may change its shape and no longer function. This is the same when there is too much acidity or alkaline in the body. When the temperature is low, enzyme activity tends to also decline.

Why are enzymes important for metabolism?

Enzymes are important for metabolism because they break down substances and turn them into chemicals that are useful for bodily functions. The energy and nutrients from the food and drinks taken by the body are effectively distributed to all its parts since metabolic enzymes fuel this process.

The health benefits of having a fast metabolism is also apparent. This includes sustaining a normal body mass as well as enjoying quality sleep. With insufficient amounts of specific metabolic enzymes in the body, it is likely to encounter metabolic problems such as weight gain and stressful situations brought by the lack of quality sleep.

One notable thing about enzymes is how they all have unique functions. For instance, sucrose and lactose are sugar that come from different sources. When enzymes attempt to break them down, there is one specific enzyme that acts on each type of sugar respectively. Sucrase breaks down sucrose, while lactase breaks down lactose.

Pharmaceutical scientists have been gaining significant outcomes by manipulating specific enzymes to inhibit particular metabolic diseases. For instance, regulating the amount of sugar metabolized by people with diabetes is essential for their healing.

However, enzyme treatment could also be critical since it can affect a person’s immune response. Close monitoring is still necessary for some cases of treatment.

How do you increase your metabolic enzymes?

Metabolic enzymes can be increased in three ways. First, nourishing yourself with fruits. Second, engaging in moderate exercise. And third, taking in supplements as recommended by your physician.

As people grow old, the amount of enzymes naturally produced by the body also declines. This makes humans vulnerable from experiencing negative health conditions as their ages progress. To prevent this, the following can greatly help in giving your body a boost in terms of producing metabolic enzymes.

Nourishing with fruits
Fruits and vegetables are a great source of nutrients that help the body produce metabolic enzymes naturally. Bananas, papayas, and pineapples are on top of the list. Avocados and mangoes are also good options.

When you experience indigestion, it could indicate that your body is not producing enough enzymes to process what you eat. As a result, you can feel gassy or suffer from stomach aches. You can soothe yourself by increasing your intake of these fruits.

Engaging in moderate exercise
Engaging in moderate exercise aids you in increasing your metabolism. However, a heavy exercise may give you the opposite effect. Make sure to give your body a rest as soon as you feel exhausted and tired while exercising. Brisk walking and jogging are simple ones you can start trying.

Taking supplements
Supplements that help boost your enzyme levels are present in the market. However, they are not as effective as taking fruits. It is best to consult your physician if taking these supplements can be helpful for you to optimize your health.

Metabolising CBD with metabolic enzymes

Cannabis sativa’s primary nonpsychoactive component has demonstrated a wide range of therapeutically advantageous pharmacological effects when used either alone or in conjunction with other medications as an adjuvant therapy. The targets for CBD’s medicinal benefits, however, seem to be elusive. Furthermore, nothing is known about the biological activity of its human metabolites, which, if produced in concentrations that are important from a pharmacological standpoint, may help explain or potentially contribute to the reported therapeutic effects. The current overview examines studies on the biological activity of CBD metabolites either in vitro or in vivo and analyses pertinent drug-drug interactions. It also highlights our current understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolic destiny of CBD in people.